The effects of smoking, both for the smoker himself, and for his entourage are well established.
Reading the study below will convince you!
Why makes nicotine addictive?
The use of cigarettes and another tobacco is addictive; this dependence is caused by nicotine, a drug present in tobacco and nicotine addiction produces a similar effect to that of heroin and cocaine.
Effects of nicotine
Nicotine causes chemical and biological changes in the brain. Although smaller than those of heroin and cocaine, the effect is called psychoactive, create an equally addictive. This is a drug “strengthening”, that is to say, users desire, regardless of the damaging effects. For example, according to a 1994 study, only 50% of smokers victims of a heart attack in which their doctors advised quitting were able to do so. Incidentally, 50% of regular smokers die from smoking suites. The nicotine addiction is a physical dependency. Withdrawal symptoms are intense and most smokers fail to quit on their first attempt because of these symptoms. The human body gets used to the nicotine and the effect of the drug is reduced over time. This is why regular smokers can inhale greater amounts of smoke and therefore toxins without showing immediate effects (cough, nausea). Nicotine is extremely poisonous if consumed in large quantities and most people feel sick and dizzy their first cigarette. These effects disappear quickly. Over time, the body gets used to the nicotine and, consequently, smokers smoke more.
The nicotine in the body
Cigarette smoke is acidic; Nicotine is absorbed through the lungs. Smoke pipe and cigar are alkaline and nicotine is absorbed through the mouth. The lungs absorb nicotine very efficiently, which then moves into the blood, brain and other body organs. Once inhaled, nicotine reaches the brain in just 10 seconds, causing several physiological reactions:
– Significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure
– blood vessel constriction and temperature drop in the hands and feet
– changing brain waves and muscle relaxation.
The degree of dependence varies, but 89% of smokers have a cigarette every one to two hours during the day. A highly addicted smoker smokes more than 25 cigarettes a day; considers that the first cigarette of the day is the most important and smoke within 30 minutes of waking up.
The most severe withdrawal symptoms occur within the first week although the craving usually persists for months or years. The desire to smoke tends to increase, especially when a person is under stress.
The main symptoms of withdrawal are:
– anxiety and irritability
– difficulty concentrating and sleeping;
– drop in heart rate and blood pressure
– craving (nicotine).
Other side effects such as fatigue and cough indicate that the body is recovering and it removes toxins related to smoking. Men earn an average of 4.9 kg in the first year of quitting smoking, compared to 5.2 kg for women.
There are now more former smokers (26%) over 15 years than current smokers (25%).
The most common reason for quitting is that there is concern about his health. Other reasons are the change of lifestyle, the cost of cigarettes, the birth of a child, the diseases caused by smoking or the death of a friend or family member.
The main reason for not quitting is lack of will.
The five stages of smoking cessation are:
– Pre-contemplation – not thinking about quitting;
– Reflection – thinking about it but is not ready;
– Preparation – getting ready to quit;
– Action – stop;
– Maintenance – remaining a non-smoker.
Effects of smoking on health
What are the effects on smokers?
Unless they quit, up to half of all smokers will die because of smoking, most of their 70th birthday, and only after having suffered for years from a reduced quality of life.
– The average smoker will die about 8 years earlier than non-smokers.
– The smoker’s life expectancy is improving after quitting smoking.
Strong scientific evidence that smoking is related to more than two dozen diseases and disorders. Fortunately, most of these to reverse after a smoker quits.
– The benefits are sometimes felt within hours.
Smokers are more likely to suffer from:
- Coronary heart disease (eg heart attacks..),
- peripheral vascular disease (circulatory problems);
- aortic aneurysm;
- high blood pressure;
- high cholesterol (LDL),
- lung cancer,
- cancer of the mouth, throat and larynx,
- pancreas cancer,
- kidney cancer and bladder,
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
- chronic bronchitis,
- peptic ulcer,
- chronic bowel disease (Crohn’s disease),
- tooth decay;
- gum disease,
- sleep disorders (sleep at inappropriate times and frequent waking),
- thyroid disease (Graves’ disease).
Women are more at risk of:
- cervical cancer of the uterus,
- menstrual problems,
- fertility problems,
- spontaneous abortion (miscarriage).
Men are more at risk of:
- Erectile dysfunction (impotence),
- Fertility problems (problems with sperm).
There is some scientific evidence that smoking can also be linked to cancer of the colon and leukemia. In addition to various diseases, smoking can also cause skin wrinkles and give the appearance of a premature aging. Smoking reduces the sense of smell and taste.
To what extent are the cigars and pipes harmful?
Cigar smokers and pipe face the same kinds of health problems that cigarette smokers.
What about other types of tobacco?
Smoking is not the only type of tobacco that causes health problems. Smokeless tobacco, including chewing tobacco and snuff, contain many harmful substances that create an addiction that are present in cigarettes, pipes and cigars. Smokeless tobacco is a major cause of cancer of the mouth and throat. It can also cause serious oral health problems, including gum recession, tooth loss and discoloration of teeth and gums.
The facts – smoking and pregnancy
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can cause serious health problems in the unborn child. Smoking also causes premature births, respiratory problems and fatal diseases in infants.
It is estimated that smoking during pregnancy is the cause of 20% to 30% of the inadequacies of birth weight, up to 14% of premature births and nearly 10% of infant mortality. The risk of developing asthma are twice as high among children whose mothers smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day. Between 400,000 and 1 million asthmatic children have their condition worsened due to exposure to secondhand smoke. Maternal smoking during and after pregnancy is linked to asthma in infants and young children. The smokers inhale nicotine and carbon monoxide, which are transmitted to the baby through the placenta, which prevents the fetus from getting the nutrients and oxygen needed for growth. Secondhand smoke also risks for pregnancy. Breast milk typically contains substances present in the mother’s body. If it smokes, the baby ingests the nicotine in breast milk. Sometimes that reducing the prevalence of smoking is not good for the baby. A pregnant woman who changes her smoking habits or decides to consume low-tar cigarettes may inhale more deeply or take more puffs to get the same amount of nicotine as before. The best way to protect the fetus is to quit smoking. If women decide to have a child soon, it is critical to stop smoking. Quit smoking during the first three or four months of pregnancy may decrease the risk of premature birth or health problems related to smoking in infants. Pregnancy is a good time to quit. No matter how long the woman smokes, the body derives an advantage from the risk of developing smoking-related health problems, including lung and heart disease and cancer are reduced.
Facts – second-hand smoke
What is secondhand smoke?
1 Second-hand smoke is a combination of noxious gases, liquids and breathable particles that can harm health. It consists of mainstream smoke, the smoke inhaled and exhaled by the smoker, and secondhand smoke, smoke comes directly from the tip of the cigarette. Secondhand smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, 50 of which are associated with cancer or known to cause cancer. Two-thirds of the smoke from a burning cigarette is not inhaled by the smoker but are released into the environment and contaminate the air that people breathe in it. Secondhand smoke is classified as carcinogenic category A. Class A substances are among the most dangerous carcinogens and there is no known safe level of exposure. Secondhand smoke contains twice the nicotine and tar in the smoke inhaled by the smoker. It also contains five times more carbon monoxide, which reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. Secondhand smoke is a cause of disease and death in healthy non-smoking. Exposure to secondhand smoke for as little as 8-20 minutes causes physical reactions linked to heart disease: – increased heart rate – decreased oxygen supply; and – constriction of blood vessels leading to increased blood pressure and heart work harder.
In children exposed to secondhand smoke, the health effects are numerous: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and breathing problems in children aged as young as 18 months. Children exposed to secondhand smoke at home are more likely to suffer breathing problems such as asthma or have lung damage. Children are twice as likely to smoke if their parents smoke. If you are a non-smoker, exposure to secondhand smoke increases by 25% your risk of developing lung cancer and 10% risk of getting a heart disease, nasal sinus cancer, brain, breast, cervix, thyroid, as well as lymphoma or leukemia. There are three times as many infants who die of syndrome of sudden infant death associated with secondhand smoke as abuse or homicide
Your children will imitate you
Children whose parents smoke more perceive smoking as normal. Research shows that children of smokers are twice as likely to smoke than children whose parents have never smoked. If a family member smokes , the probability that a young start smoking are higher. Children who believe that their parents would disapprove if they smoked them are less likely to start smoking than those who see their parents smoking. Tobacco use among teenagers predisposes to substance abuse and drug use. If his best friend or peer group smoke, the child / adolescent is more likely to smoke. Research on teenage attitudes shows that smoking is a symbol of belonging to a social group, especially at the beginning of high school. For children and adolescents, smoking signifies maturity, control, defiance, individuality and way to manage stress. Generally, the experience of alcohol is before that of tobacco. Teens who smoke are also likely to engage in other drugs. Advertising influences children. It has been shown quelled plays a leading role in terms of convincing children to start smoking. Research has shown that children who buy candy cigarettes are almost four times more likely to try real cigarettes. A child can easily get cigarettes is predisposed to smoking. Among smokers aged between 15 and 17 years, 31% say they get their cigarettes from a friend or family member. Since 1994, the number of teenagers who reported obtaining cigarettes from friends, relatives or relatives from 19% to 39%. For the same period, a decrease of 57% was observed in 45% of the number of teen smokers who buy cigarettes convenience store.